Candida guilliermondii, an Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen with Decreased Susceptibility to Fluconazole: Geographic and Temporal Trends from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program

This study thus demonstrates that mannans are relevant for the C. 116, 1642–1650. Smears from synovial fluid were stained with May Gruenwald-Giemsa and examined under a light microscope. At first, we reported the results as C. Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis of O-linked mannans. The 5′PMR1-REP-URA5-REP-3′PMR1disruption cassette was released from pGEM-T vector after digestion of the pG-5′PMR1-REP-URA5-REP-3′PMR1with NotI and used to transform the non-homologous end-joining pathway deficient strain KU141F1 (genotype ura5, ku70) (Foureau et al. )Radiography of the stifle revealed a similar grade of osteoarthritis but an evident decrease of synovial volume. Spore forming, in a hat or saturn-shape.

An iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis revealed that the responses ofto patulin were complex. Clinical importance: The putative protein is predicted to bear eight transmembrane domains and the canonical motif 353DKTGTLT, which contains the aspartic acid residue involved in the phosphorylation of P-type ATPases (Lutsenko and Kaplan, 1995; Bates et al. )NGY152 (WT), Capmr1Δ (NGY355), Capmr1Δ + CgPMR1 (HMY186).

Live ATCC 6260, parental (KU141), and re-integrant control strains stimulated higher TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 levels than those challenged with untreated cells, and these cytokine levels were as high as those measured with untreated-HK cells (Figure 6). (01 when compared by two-way ANOVA). Candida guilliermondii is an opportunistic yeast that accounts for 1–3% of all candidemia cases, most frequently in patients with oncological diseases (Girmenia et al. )

A Multiplicity of Infection (MOI) of 1 macrophage to 1 yeast (1M: )81% M07-1525 C. Different circle colors represent drug resistance pattern of fluconazole; Green, WT; Red, non-WT.

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  • Yeast-form fungi were identified according to conventional biochemical laboratory methods by the VITEK 2 system using YST-ID.


(3 g/dl), while biochemical parameters were within normal range. 7, and we defined the result as no identification (Table 1). Thus, the intense bands, with lower migration than the molecular marker are likely to be O-linked mannans bearing a phosphomannan residue, which has been described in C. Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species have increased significantly over recent decades and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. After 2 or 5 days post infection, animals were humanitarianly euthanatized, and the liver, kidneys and spleen were removed, weighed, and separately homogenized with a tissue grinder. KU141 (Parental), HMY134 (pmr1Δ) and HMY138 (pmr1Δ + PMR1).

4 (buffer A), buffer A plus 30 μg/mL poly-L-lysine (MW 30–70 kDa, Sigma Cat.)

Infections of Joints, Synovium-Lined Structures, and Soft Tissue

1 N and incubated at room temperature during 18 h with gently shaking. Pmr1 is a Golgi-resident P-type ATPase ion pump that provides the cofactor Mn2+ to mannosyltransferases involved in both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation (Bates et al. )It has been reported that bacterial DNA is frequently found in canine synovial tissue from cranial cruciate ligament rupture joints, possibly as a result of altered immune defences, which may relate to lymphoplasmacytic inflammation [28]. Growth data were normalized as percentage of those generated with the same strain without treatment. The fungal wall is composed of macromolecules not synthesized by the host, and therefore is a source of ligands recognized by innate immune cells. Indeed, it has been reported that dectin-1 collaborates with TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-5, TLR-7, and TLR-9 in a synergistic way to induce cytokine synthesis (Reid et al. )At 2 days post-infection, BALB/c mice infected with the pmr1Δ null mutant had similar fungal burdens in the spleen, kidneys and liver, as that measured in organs from mice infected with the parental strain (Figure 11).


It is interesting that, despite the pmr1Δ null mutant has more β1,3-glucan exposed at the cell wall, this did not lead to a higher stimulation of cytokines. 8-fold increment in chitin and glucan levels, respectively (Table 1). Plates were incubated at 35°C for 24 h before the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. 245-254, 2020. Wickerham; NRRL Y-324 (CBS 566), type strain, Candida guilliermondii, from sputum, A. Cells were cultivated overnight in SC medium supplemented with 2 units/mL chitinase and then collected and washed with deionized water. 63% M08-0217 C. Macrophages (2 × 105 per well) were adhered overnight in 96-well plates and then CFW-labeled yeast cells were added in cRPMI in the presence of 5 μg/mL CFW to allow the continuous labeling of newly replicated yeasts outside the macrophages.


Culturing of blood and urine samples did not produce Candida colonies and consequently systemic candidiasis was rejected. 81% M08-0160 C. It is replaced each time there is a query done.

Suzuki (1969b) nom. On cornmeal tween 80 agar and at 25°C after 72 h, it produces clusters of small blastospores along the pseudohyphae and particularly at septal points. Fungal keratopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of infectious crystalline keratopathy. Growth on the surface of assimilation media: On cornmeal tween 80 agar and at 25 °C after 72 h, it produces clusters of small blastospores along the pseudohyphae and particularly at septal points. Margins are usually lobate. 20474, 1 is classified as follows: 0 by the Bruker MALDI Biotyper, whereas the scores of 19 strains were between 1.

Samples of synovial fluid and synovial membrane and villi were collected and submitted for culture and sensitivity testing. Meyerozyma guilliermondii has been isolated from numerous human infections, mostly of cutaneous origin. This may be debated since in humans a parenteral administration of fluconazole produces substantial synovial fluid levels [38]. After 7 days at 25°C, growth under the coverglass shows abundant, well branched pseudohyphae bearing whorls of blastoconidia. The horizontal bar represents the multiplication of the yeast cells in the presence of macrophages, expressed as a percentage of the initial biomass at T1h. 9 cfu/g, and 5.

Aliquots containing 100 μL of 0.

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(4%) isolates were assigned to be non-wild type (non-WT) to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Similarly, HK C. Can be found in wine in barrels and lead to a cosmetic (film) or organoleptic defects in the wine. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Purchase a subscription to gain access to this and all other articles in this journal. 1Available from:

400 μg/mL Calcofluor White (CFW, Sigma), 200 μg/mL Congo Red (Sigma), 300 μg/mL hygromycin B (GoldBio); 50 μg/mL tunicamycin (Sigma) and 0. All 28 isolates were finally identified as C. Similar observations have been reported for C. Neurological examination was unremarkable. Optimal treatment of C. No significant differences were observed between the mortality associated to parental and pmr1Δ + PMR1 strains (P = 0. )

The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. Therefore, these results confirm that the loss of PMR1 significantly affects the virulence of C. Patulin, a potent mycotoxin, contaminates fruits and derived products worldwide, and is a serious health concern. This electrophoretic profile was similar to that observed for O-linked mannans isolated from C.

The deep-seated infections caused by the Candida genus are associated with a high mortality rate, and Candida albicans is the most frequent species associated with these diseases.

Macroscopic Morphology

Mora-Montes, H. To differentiate these closely related species, we constructed a phylogenetic tree using the neighbor-joining method with MEGA version 4. ITS sequencing recommended. Nevertheless, our results clearly show virulence attenuation in the mouse model upon PMR1 disruption. It has been reported that heat-inactivated C. 87 × 106 cells/µl, Hematocrit [Hct] 33.

226-227, which is incorporated by reference.


(7%; 37/59) originated from one hospital (Z1; The first hospital of China medical university), which is a large teaching university hospital with more than two thousand hospital beds. The use for xylitol is as a sweetener that can substitute for sugars, especially in products such as chewing gum. The cell wall of control strains was similar in carbohydrate and protein contents, as well as in wall porosity to the polycation DEAE-dextran, an indirect reporter of mannan arrangement (Cheng et al. )Although minimally invasive techniques such as joint puncture are not an important risk factor for developing infective arthritis, in our opinion joint injections pose a potential risk for microbiological joint contamination that may evolve in infection especially in attenuated immune response dogs. Treatment of C.

To determine the uptake of fungal cells by the macrophages, a final concentration of 250 μg/mL trypan blue was used to quench the fluorescence of extracellular CFW-labeled yeasts. MN, NP, and HM conceived the study. By this method, all strains were clustered with C.

However, the IL-10 levels stimulated by the HK null mutant cells were lower than those associated with the control strains. 9, CBS 2082 (Yamada et al. )No changes in the levels of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β were observed in cells pre-treated with laminarin and exposed to the pmr1Δ null mutant; however, IL-10 levels were significantly reduced when cells were stimulated with either live or HK mutant cells with or without β-elimination. The white part of the bar represents the percentage of non-phagocytosing macrophages; the gray part represents the percentage of macrophages engaged in phagocytosis. 81% M08-0227 C. (7 mg/kg) of 0.


Germ tube negative yeast and sugar assimilation pattern. Degradation of patulin bywas dependent on the yeast cell viability, and mainly occurred inside cells. Treatment of a Candida spp.

Growth is smooth to wrinkled and tannish-white in color. The ERG11 gene was amplified and sequenced in each of the 164 isolates. The amino acid mutations were identified by comparing with the most frequent genotype, ST 1. Macrophages from the J774 cell line were infected as described (Dementhon et al. )What type of issue did you experience with the content on the page? For data normalization, growth results are shown as percentage of those obtained with the same strain growing in the absence of any perturbing agent.

CgPMR1 is the functional ortholog of CaPMR1. STs 1, 2, and 3 were divided by different microsatellite genotypes, but some genotypes were associated with some STs, such as PU03/ST 10, PU05/ST 8, PU09/ST 15, PU10/ST 6, and PU39/ST 7. A long-term survey of Candida spp.

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By MALDI-TOF, we could correctly identify 21 (75%) of 28 C. Gene sequence accession numbers, type strain: 2%) were higher than those of conventional methods (96. Strain VITEK 2 MALDI-TOF MS Sequencing Identification Score Identification Score ID (28S gene) Similarity ID (ITS gene) Similarity M07-1257 C. Results are pooled data from 2 separate experiments with 5 mice per group. 02% (w/v) crystal violet were then added to each well and 20 min later plates were rinsed with water. 81% M08-1848 C.

Blocking of dectin-1 affects human PBMC cytokine induction in response to C. Ota; NRRL Y-2084 (CBS 2084), from sputum, F. Genus/species (aliases): 05, when compared with untreated yeast cells. Biofilm formation and its analysis were performed as described (Peeters et al. )In accord with these observations, cells with mannoses shaved by endo H and β-elimination, with low levels of mannan on the cell wall (Figure 3) produced cytokine levels similar to that of the pmr1Δ null mutant, stressing the relevance of both N-linked and O-linked mannans for maximal stimulation of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β (Figure 6). Gale (Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA) for providing pYFP-URA3. Sabouraudia 23, 377–387.